CentOS-6.6+MySQL-5.6

部署环境
操作系统:CentOS-6.6-x86_64-bin-DVD1.iso
MySQL 版本:mysql-5.6.26.tar.gz
操作用户:root
系统 IP:192.168.1.26
主机名:mysql-01
建议配置:4 核 + 、4G 内存 +

1、使用下面的命令检查是否安装有 MySQL Server:

# rpm -qa | grep mysql
mysql-libs-5.1.73-3.el6_5.x86_64

如果是 CentOS7 以上,请使用以下命令查看:
# rpm -qa | grep mariadb
mariadb-libs-5.5.41-2.el7_0.x86_64
(因为没有 MySQL 服务,因此没必要卸载。mysql-libs 是 MySQL 的必要包)
(如果有的话可通过下面的命令来卸载掉,例如:rpm -ev mariadb-libs-5.5.52-1.el7.x86_64 //需要按包的依赖关系依次删除)

[root@DB-Server init.d]# service mysql status
MySQL running (25673)[ OK ]
[root@DB-Server init.d]# service mysql stop
Shutting down MySQL..[ OK ]
[root@DB-Server init.d]# service mysql status
MySQL is not running[FAILED]

2、改防火墙设置,打开 3306 端口:

# vi /etc/sysconfig/iptables
增加如下行:
## MySQL
-A INPUT -p tcp -m state --state NEW -m tcp --dport 3306 -j ACCEPT

重启防火墙:
# service iptables restart

3、新增 mysql 用户组:

# groupadd mysql

4、新增 mysql 用户,并添加到 mysql 用户组:
# useradd -r -g mysql mysql

5、新建 MySQL 执行文件目录(后面会把编译好的 mysql 程序安装到这个目录):

# mkdir -p /usr/local/mysql
(-p 参数的作用是:如果最终目录的父目录不存在也会一并创建)

6、新建 MySQL 数据库数据文件目录:

# mkdir -p /home/mysql/data
# mkdir -p /home/mysql/logs
# mkdir -p /home/mysql/temp
(注意:上面的 logs 及 temp 目录是为了以后将 MySQL 的数据文件与执行程序文件分离,
如果你打算设置到不同的路径,注意修改对应的执行命令和数据库初始化脚本。正式生产环
境,建议数据目录和日志目录都使用单独的分区来挂载,不同分区属于不同的磁盘或磁盘
组。)

7、增加 PATH 环境变量搜索路径:

# vi /etc/profile
在 profile 文件末尾增加两行
## mysql env param
PATH=/usr/local/mysql/bin:/usr/local/mysql/lib:$PATH
export PATH

使 PATH 搜索路径立即生效:
# source /etc/profile

8、安装编译 MySQL 需要的依赖包:

(mysql 从 5.5 版本开始,不再使用./configure 编译,而是使用 cmake 编译器,具体的
cmake 编译参数可以参考 mysql 官网文档
http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.5/en/source-configuration-options.html,
安装基本依赖包,先用 yum 安装 cmake、automake 、autoconf ,另 MySQL 5.5.x 需要最少安装的
包有:bison,gcc、gcc-c++、ncurses-devel):

# yum -y install make cmake gcc gcc-c++ bison bison-devel ncurses ncurses-devel autoconf automake

9、进入/usr/local/src 目录,上传 mysql-5.6.26.tar.gz 源代码到/usr/local/src 目录:
# cd /usr/local/src
# rz

10、开始编译安装 mysql-5.6.26:

解压缩源码包:
# tar -zxvf mysql-5.6.26.tar.gz
进入解压缩源码目录:
# rm -rf mysql-5.6.26.tar.gz
# cd mysql-5.6.26

使用 cmake 源码安装 mysql(如果你打算安装到不同的路径,注意修改下面语句中/usr/local/mysql 和/home/mysql/data 路径!)
创建编译配置:
# cmake \
-DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/usr/local/mysql \
-DMYSQL_UNIX_ADDR=/usr/local/mysql/mysql.sock \
-DDEFAULT_CHARSET=utf8 \
-DDEFAULT_COLLATION=utf8_general_ci \
-DWITH_MYISAM_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DWITH_INNOBASE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DWITH_ARCHIVE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DWITH_BLACKHOLE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DWITH_MEMORY_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 \
-DWITH_READLINE=1 \
-DENABLED_LOCAL_INFILE=1 \
-DMYSQL_DATADIR=/home/mysql/data \
-DMYSQL_USER=mysql \
-DMYSQL_TCP_PORT=3306 \
-DENABLE_DOWNLOADS=1

上面的这些复制完,回车,然后就开始 cmake 的过程。

配置解释:
-DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=/usr/local/mysql 设置安装目录
-DMYSQL_DATADIR=/home/mysql/data 设置数据库存放目录
-DMYSQL_UNIX_ADDR=/usr/local/mysql/mysql.sock 设置 UNIX socket 目录
-DMYSQL_USER=mysql 设置运行用户
-DDEFAULT_CHARSET=utf8 设置默认字符集,默认 latin1
-DEFAULT_COLLATION=utf8_general_ci 设置默认校对规则,默认 latin1_general_ci
-DWITH_INNOBASE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1 添加 InnoDB 引擎支持
-DENABLE_DOWNLOADS=1 自动下载可选文件,比如自动下载谷歌的测试包
-DMYSQL_TCP_PORT=3306 设置服务器监听端口,默认 3306
-DSYSCONFDIR=/etc 设置 my.cnf 所在目录,默认为安装目录)

执行过程中会出现:
CMake Error: Problem with tar_extract_all(): Invalid argument
CMake Error: Problem extracting tar: /usr/local/src/mysql-5.6.26/source_downloads/gmock-1.6.0.zip
解决方法:
cd mysql 目录下面会发现有一个 source_downloads 目录,需要解压 unzip gmock-1.6.0.zip,然
后再重新执行上述配置过程。当然你也可以去掉-DENABLE_DOWNLOADS=1 这个选项,不编
译谷歌的测试包也没有什么问题,但是之前的某些版本会出现无法编译的问题.

11、cmake 结束后开始编译源码:

# make

12、安装编译好的程序:

# make install
(注意:如果需要重装 mysql, 在 /usr/local/src/mysql-5.6.26 在执行下 make install 就可以了,
不需要再 cmake 和 make)

13、清除安装临时文件:

# make clean

14、修改 mysql 目录拥有者为 mysql 用户:

# chown -Rf mysql:mysql /usr/local/mysql
# chown -Rf mysql:mysql /home/mysql

15、进入 mysql 执行程序的安装路径:

# cd /usr/local/mysql

16、执行初始化配置脚本,创建系统自带的数据库和表

(注意:路径/home/mysql/data 需要换成你自定定义的数据库存放路径):
# scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql --basedir=/usr/local/mysql --datadir=/home/mysql/data

17、初始化脚本在/usr/local/mysql/下生成了配置文件 my.cnf,需要更改该配置文件的所有者:
# ls -lah

# chown -Rf mysql:mysql /usr/local/mysql/my.cnf

18、注意:
(1)Tips:在启动 MySQL 服务时,会按照一定次序搜索 my.cnf,先在/etc 目录下找,找不
到则会搜索 mysql 程序目录下是否有 my.cnf
(2)需要注意 CentOS 6 版操作系统的最小安装完成后,即使没有安装 mysql,在/etc 目录
下也会存在一个 my.cnf 文件,建议将此文件更名为其他的名字,否则该文件会干扰源码安
装的 MySQL 的正确配置,造成无法启动。修改/etc/my.cnf 操作如下:
可以:mv /etc/my.cnf /etc/my.cnf.bak
也可以:删除掉/etc/my.cnf 这个文件:rm /etc/my.cnf

如果你需要用于生产环境,不要急着做下面的 mysql 启动操作。建议把上一步骤中 mysql 初
始化生成的/usr/local/mysql/my.cnf 删除,然后把你优化好的 mysql 配置文件 my.cnf 放到/etc
下。(这是做 mysql 主从复制和 mysql 优化的经验!)

(我们这里使用/etc/my.cnf)

19、编辑/etc/my.cnf:

# vi /etc/my.cnf
[client]
port = 3306
socket = /usr/local/mysql/mysql.sock

[mysqld]
character-set-server = utf8
collation-server = utf8_general_ci

skip-external-locking
skip-name-resolve

user = mysql
port = 3306
basedir = /usr/local/mysql
datadir = /home/mysql/data
tmpdir = /home/mysql/temp
# server_id = .....
socket = /usr/local/mysql/mysql.sock
log-error = /home/mysql/logs/mysql_error.log
pid-file = /home/mysql/mysql.pid

open_files_limit = 10240

back_log = 600
max_connections=1000
max_connect_errors = 6000
wait_timeout=605800

#open_tables = 600
#table_cache = 650
#opened_tables = 630

max_allowed_packet = 64M

sort_buffer_size = 8M
join_buffer_size = 8M
thread_cache_size = 300

query_cache_type = 1
query_cache_size = 512M
query_cache_limit = 2M
query_cache_min_res_unit = 16k

tmp_table_size = 512M
max_heap_table_size = 512M

key_buffer_size = 512M
read_buffer_size = 2M
read_rnd_buffer_size = 32M
bulk_insert_buffer_size = 128M

lower_case_table_names=1

default-storage-engine = INNODB

innodb_buffer_pool_size = 2G
innodb_log_buffer_size = 32M
innodb_log_file_size = 128M
innodb_flush_method = O_DIRECT

#####################
thread_concurrency = 32
long_query_time= 2
slow-query-log = on
slow-query-log-file = /home/mysql/logs/mysql-slow.log

[mysqldump]
quick
max_allowed_packet = 32M

[mysqld_safe]
log-error=/var/log/mysqld.log
pid-file=/var/run/mysqld/mysqld.pid

20、复制服务启动脚本:

# cp /usr/local/mysql/support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysql
或者:(以下语句是跳过提示直接覆盖)
# /bin/cp -a /usr/local/mysql/support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysql

21、启动 MySQL 服务:

# service mysql start
Starting MySQL.. SUCCESS!
(初次启动会在/usr/local/mysql 目录下生成 mysql.sock 文件)

22、设置 MySQL 开机自动启动服务:

# chkconfig mysql on

设置 MySQL 数据库 root 用户的本地登录密码(初始用户没有密码):
# mysqladmin -u root password 'abc#$123'

23、登录并修改 MySQL 用户 root 的密码:

# mysql -uroot -p

Enter password:
Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 2
Server version: 5.6.26-log Source distribution

Copyright (c) 2000, 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql>

############## 特别注意:mysql> 命令模式下,后面的分号“;”不能少################
mysql> show databases;
+--------------------+
| Database |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql |
| performance_schema |
| test |
+--------------------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> use mysql;
Reading table information for completion of table and column names
You can turn off this feature to get a quicker startup with -A

修改 root 用户密码:
mysql> update user set Password = password('abc#$123') where User='root';
mysql> flush privileges;
mysql>GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'root'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY 'abc#$123' WITH GRANT OPTION;

all代表接受所有操作,比如 select,insert,delete....;
*.* 代表所有库下面的所有表;
% 代表这个用户允许从任何地方登录,为了安全期间,这个%可以替换为你允许的ip地址;

mysql> flush privileges;
mysql> exit;
-------------允许 root 远程登录,设置远程登录密码:abc#$123------------

###################注意:真实生产环境,应用操作不要使用 root 用户,建议操作如下:###################

mysql> create user oxygen identified by '123456';
mysql> grant all privileges on *.* to 'oxygen'@'%' identified by '123456' with grant option;
mysql> flush privileges;
mysql> exit;

重新登录
[root@edu-mysql-01 ~]# mysql -uroot -p
Enter password:
Welcome to the MySQL monitor. Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 9
Server version: 5.6.26-log Source distribution

Copyright (c) 2000, 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

mysql>

24、运行安全设置脚本,强烈建议生产服务器使用(可选):
[root@edu-mysql-01 ~]# /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql_secure_installation
NOTE: RUNNING ALL PARTS OF THIS SCRIPT IS RECOMMENDED FOR ALL MySQL
SERVERS IN PRODUCTION USE! PLEASE READ EACH STEP CAREFULLY!

In order to log into MySQL to secure it, we'll need the current
password for the root user. If you've just installed MySQL, and
you haven't set the root password yet, the password will be blank,
so you should just press enter here.

Enter current password for root (enter for none): ----->此处输入 root 密码
OK, successfully used password, moving on...

Setting the root password ensures that nobody can log into the MySQL
root user without the proper authorisation.

You already have a root password set, so you can safely answer 'n'.

Change the root password? [Y/n] n -----> 上已为 root 设置了密码,此处可输 n
... skipping.

By default, a MySQL installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone
to log into MySQL without having to have a user account created for
them. This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation
go a bit smoother. You should remove them before moving into a
production environment.

Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] Y ------> 删除匿名用户
... Success!

Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from 'localhost'. This
ensures that someone cannot guess at the root password from the network.

Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] n -----> 一般不允许 root 远程登录, 可 添加普通用户,
然后设置允许远程登录
... skipping.

By default, MySQL comes with a database named 'test' that anyone can
access. This is also intended only for testing, and should be removed
before moving into a production environment.

Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] Y -----> 删除 test 库及相应权限
- Dropping test database...
... Success!
- Removing privileges on test database...
... Success!

Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes made so far
will take effect immediately.

Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] Y -----> 重新加载权限表使设置生效
... Success!

All done! If you've completed all of the above steps, your MySQL
installation should now be secure.
Thanks for using MySQL!
Cleaning up...

25、重启服务器,检测 mysql 是否能开机自动启动:
[root@edu-mysql-01 ~] # reboot

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